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What Happened Before The Big Bang?

What happened before the big bang?


What Happened Before The Big Bang?

The genesis of the universe. It’s hard to imagine anything happening before the Big Bang, and rightly so. This is because time itself was created at that moment. So what happened before this “moment of creation”?

The genesis of the universe. It’s hard to imagine anything happening before the Big Bang, and rightly so. This is because time itself was created at that moment. So what happened before this “moment of creation”? Is it worth pondering this enigmatic and controversial question? We think so.

A Controversial Question?

Because of the nature of the question, it tends to be controversial among physicists. Many claim the question itself makes no sense and refuse to think about it. And in a way, it doesn’t make sense. If time didn’t exist before the Big Bang, how could anything happen before it? Our concept of ‘before and after’ (as we know it) relies on our understanding of time and the concept of ’cause and effect’.

An analogous question would be “What’s north of the North Pole?” The question has no meaningful answer due to our understanding and definition of ‘north’.

This puts the question in a strictly theoretical realm. We’re going to explore several different hypotheses on what happened before the Big Bang, put forth by a few of the world’s leading theoretical physicists.

The Big Bang

Our universe was created in the moment that is known as The Big Bang. Contrary to the imagery and tendency to imagine an actual gigantic explosion, the Big Bang actually refers to the rapid expansion of spacetime itself.

Imagine our universe (and reality as we know it) as a deflated balloon that was compressed to a miniscule point. If you were an ant living on the outside of that deflated balloon, and someone was to blow hard into it, the space (the balloon’s outer surface) would appear to rapidly expand. That first initial hard breath is what is known as the Big Bang. During this short inflationary period, spacetime (and the matter within it) was expanding faster than light. It eventually slowed and cooled. This cooling is what allowed complex matter to form, like stars and planets. The universe is still undergoing a similar expansion, but it is much slower than the initial big bang.

Big Bang Timeline

Big Bang Time Line

What Happened Before The Big Bang?

Many physicists and theoretical physicists are unhappy with certain aspects of our current model of the Big Bang. One of the most glaring issues is the absolute beginning – the actual moment itself. As you rewind time to get closer and closer to the beginning of the Big Bang, the math breaks down due to having to invoke infinity (infinitely small in size and infinite in density). By using infinity, we are effectively saying that reality itself has no rules or meaning. Physics and the laws of nature completely break down. In an attempt to make sense of this paradoxical singularity, and restore the reality itself, a few of theoretical physicists have proposed hypotheses on what may have happened before the Big Bang.

  • The Big Bounce – Prof. Priyam Singh

big bounce

Using some clever math, Priyam Singh says the universe may go through an infinite cycle of Big Bangs. The universe expands outward, slows, then thanks to an unknown force, it starts to contract. This contraction slowly increases in speed which eventually causes everything in the universe to come together into a single point called a singularity. This singularity then explodes into another Big Bang. This repeated process is what is known as the ‘Big Bounce’. His hypothesis has its own set of problems however, like what caused the first Big Bang to set the cycle motion? It’s still a chicken and the egg scenario. Singh hopes that one day science may be able to answer that question.

  • Born From A Black Hole – Prof. Lee Smolin

born in a black holeTaking a page from Darwin’s natural selection, Professor Smolin suggests that for a universe to prosper, it must also reproduce. A universe can do this by spawning other universes via its black holes. His hypothesis suggests that as matter gets consumed by a black hole and is compressed into an infinitely small space of infinite density, an opposite bounce (expansion) will take place inside of every black hole at its singularity. This expansion or ‘rebound’ creates a brand new universe and would look very much like our own Big Bang. Only, this new universe would be invisible to anyone outside of the black hole. One problem with his theory is that since we will never be able to observe these new universes being created, his hypothesis will be virtually impossible to prove.

  • It’s A Brane New World – Prof. Neil Turok

brane universe

Professor Turok suggests that our universe exists on a 3-dimensional membrane which exists in a higher 4th-dimension. This higher dimension contains other 3-dimensional branes which may also contain other universes. Within his models, a brane can collide with another. Such a collision would cause a massive release of matter and energy – a Big Bang. His theory has the added benefit of being fully calculable using math and does not invoke infinity. It’s an ideal candidate for describing how universe began under String Theory. Such collisions would happen often (every few trillion years), giving new life to dead or dying universes.

  • Our Universe In A Bubble – Prof Michio Kaku

bubble universe

Another idea similar to the brane universe hypothesis, and is also string theory friendly, are bubble universes. This hypothesis suggests that our universe is floating around in a higher 4th dimension or “hyperspace” inside a 3 dimensional bubble. In this multiverse theory, there are other bubbles which could contain many different universes. New universes are created when a tiny bubble buds off a larger or “parent” bubble. When this budding off happens, a Big Bang occurs inside of the new bubble and it grows as spacetime expands. This process could happen infinitely which means there could be an infinite number of universes inside this 4-dimensional ‘multiverse’.

Testing And Evidence

While wondering what happened before the Big Bang makes for an interesting thought experiment and sparks the imagination, the testability of the hypotheses are nearly impossible in our immediate future. The technology and scientific understanding required for such tests are hundreds, if not thousands of years away.

Wollack, Edward J. (10 December 2010). “Cosmology: The Study of the Universe“. Universe 101: Big Bang Theory. NASA.
Friedman, A. (1999). “On the Curvature of Space“. General Relativity and Gravitation 31 (12): 1991–2000. Bibcode 1999GReGr..31.1991F
Kennedy, B.K. (2007). “What Happened Before the Big Bang?“.
George Ellis (2011). “Does the Multiverse Really Exist?“. Scientific American 305 (2): 38–43.

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  1. Adriana

    October 21, 2011 at 4:10 pm

    This is an amazing website to learn about the big bang, i give it a 9.!

    • ace

      October 24, 2011 at 1:45 am

      I’ll teach you all about the big bang.

  2. Jay

    February 21, 2012 at 9:02 am

    There is still a problem with each theory, if the planets came from gases and rocks that were in space, how did they get there to begin with? I think I’m more interested in where spacetime itself came from. I don’t know if “it’s just there” is a good enough answer. I just wish we could get all of the answers at some point within my lifetime.

    • TiagoTiago

      June 22, 2013 at 12:51 am

      If I remember correctly, all materials except for some of the hydrogen, helium and I think lithium, were produced in the fusion reaction of stars (and a few also when stars died). But part of each of those 3 I mentioned was actually formed from loose subatomic particles whizzing around very early in the history of the Universe.

    • mymmeli

      August 9, 2016 at 4:53 am

      Everything came from the big bang, like we all are part of it, kinda.

  3. john mcdermott

    April 16, 2013 at 2:45 pm

    I cant believe these guys are called scientists – they are philosophers and poor ones at that. God created the world and it shows Jesus infinite power, Romans 1.

    • Jason Scott

      November 22, 2013 at 9:10 am

      The Bible is a philosophy. If you don’t back up your claims with material evidence, are you not also a poor philosopher?

  4. Phobos

    May 23, 2013 at 6:03 am

    My hypothesis: the big bang is just a local occurrence (the creation of the universe WE know) in infinite space containing matter and energy.

    We already know universe is expanding and contains black holes.

    As black holes get older, travel far away from the initial location, merge with other black holes and consume everything around, they reach a critical point and start another big bang, thus starting another universe.

    This could be proven likely only after we are able to see billions of light-years further than the current “edge” of known universe or with deeper understanding of black holes.

    • Sp33dy

      June 19, 2013 at 12:34 pm

      Well, how was the first universe made? If a black hole makes another universe, how was the first made if there was “nothing” to begin with?

  5. patrick

    June 7, 2013 at 3:20 pm

    Prof. P Singh & L Smolin suggestions are more plausible than the “once off” big bang theory that is put forward in so many TV programmes as the de facto version of events.

  6. mr.myth

    July 26, 2013 at 12:21 am

    Well, we always want the best answer to explain these kind of questions. In my opinion, I would say that due to our limited understanding, we won’t be able to answer these kinds of questions. There are things science and religions can’t explain and sometimes are called a ‘myth’ and aren’t exactly sure how it happen so it’s best just to treat it like a ‘myth’.

  7. wolfe

    December 8, 2014 at 4:11 pm

    So this article contradicts the following article:

    In the link above, it is stated that nothing can go faster than the speed because:

    “Particles that have mass require energy to accelerate them. The closer to the speed of light you get a particle, the more energy is required to go faster. This is because the particles themselves get more massive in proportion to the increased velocity. In short, the faster you go, the heavier you get.

    Thanks to this inconvenient truth, if you wanted to accelerate a single electron to ‘light speed’, you would need an infinite amount energy due to the electron becoming infinitely heavy. There isn’t enough energy in the entire universe to propel just a single electron to the speed of light.”

    Based on that last sentence alone, how can this article state:

    “During this short inflationary period, spacetime (and the matter within it) was expanding faster than light.”

    How can both of these statements be true?

    • Paul Burkhart

      December 13, 2014 at 7:01 pm

      How can both statements be true?

      Spacetime is not restricted to the light speed. Remember, nothing can travel faster than light, but that’s exactly what spacetime is, nothing. It’s not beholden to the speed of light because spacetime is not mass or energy. It’s the only thing that can travel faster than light. It can also pull faster than light as well. See a black hole. Inside a black hole, spacetime is falling faster than light which is why light cannot escape its pull.

      • wolfe

        January 14, 2015 at 2:52 pm

        So spacetime is nothing? How can nothing be something? It is impossible for nothing to also be something. And how can “nothing” travel faster than the speed of light when it is nothing? How can “nothing” pull when again it is nothing? It does not exist. In order to pull it must be something. So going back to my question, if nothing travels faster than the speed of light, then how can “spacetime (something) and the matter within it (also something) expand faster than the speed of light”?

        • paddoboy

          August 12, 2015 at 10:58 pm

          “During this short inflationary period, spacetime (and the matter within it) was expanding faster than light.”

          The matter/mass within it, [spacetime] is just carried along with the expansion. It is not a Doppler redshift we see from earth, it is a Cosmological redshift…or spacetime expanding between the source and receiver, rather than any mass actually moving as in a Doppler effect.

        • paddoboy

          August 13, 2015 at 6:54 am

          What Paul meant was nothing with mass can travel at or in excess of light speed. Spacetime has no mass and is not confined by the speed limit.
          I don’t agree though that spacetime is nothing. Spacetime [as we know it] is what evolved from the Big Bang.
          Matter/mass came later.

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